A Spanish version of Perkins original was created; its 15 items comprise a single factor that explains Its items were translated into Spanish by three translators and specialists in this field. The scale measures affective and emotional aspects like feelings of connectedness with nature, interest, fear, and care toward nature Perkins, Responses are given on a 7-point Likert-type scale from 1 strongly disagree to 7 strongly agree.
It is comprised of four factors 20 items in total that together explain We used the Spanish version of Stern et al. It has a 5-point Likert-type response scale ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree. We used a translation of scales designed by Stern et al. A Spanish version was designed for use in the present study.
The FACTOR program considers the polychoric correlation matrix, the ordinal measurement scale of the items and values of asymmetry and kurtosis that are not in the recommended levels. In addition, the FACTOR program calculates goodness-of-fit indicators and coefficients of the residuals of the resulting factor distribution Lorenzo-Seva and Ferrando, The method of multiple and simple linear regression were applied to determine the effect of sublime emotion toward nature on environmental behaviors.
All the variables we measured showed skewness between 0. According to principal components analysis, the one-factor solution accounts for After eliminating item 20, CFI rose to 0. Using the method of oblimin rotation, items 3, 6, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 18, and 23 loaded onto Factor 1, accounting for Meanwhile, items 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 15, 17, 21, 22, 24, 25, and 26 loaded on Factor 2, explaining Factor loadings of items onto their respective factors ranged from 0.
Factor loadings of items onto each factor appear in Table 2.
Table 2. Also, item selection criteria included mean under 4, and SD under 1. This led us to eliminate items 3 and 14 from Factor 1 for both lower item-total correlation and lower factor loading. Table 3. Likewise, items 1, 2, and 4 were eliminated from Factor II. Item 8 which showed higher item-total correlation and internal consistency, repeats content from item 1.
Items 22 and 25 loaded only in Factor II, both with an important contribution to the meaning of this Factor. Table 4. The refined SEN scale has a total of 18 items distributed across two factors. Its meaning relates to fear of the natural world, which is perceived as unpredictable, powerful, and majestic.
Feelings of humility are also present, along with voluntary submission to and respect for nature, onto which subjugating qualities are projected, along with a higher power and mystery. Factor II has been defined as inspiring energy, characterized by joy, freedom, inspiration, deep connection with living beings and with nature, harmony with the universe, vitality, eternity, a sense of belonging with nature, harmony between life and death, speechlessness about feelings of astonishment, epiphany, intense emotional arousal about things that are transcendent or exalted.
Similarly, it involves a state of vigor and inspiring energy toward life. These aspects altogether — harmony and connection on the one hand; energy, freedom, and inspiring vitality on the other — can be interpreted as a state of emotional euphoria related to wellbeing, happiness, and fascination toward the transcendence of nature and higher powers in the universe. Last, we analyzed two factors, awe and inspiring energy. The criterion that each factor has at least four to seven items was met Abad et al.
This final version of SEN 18 items is used for calculating the analyses of descriptive, comparative and correlational data between variables. Analysis of awe and inspiring energy results follow. For minimum and maximum total scores values on each variable, see Table 5. The data tended toward normal distribution, given that the absolute value of skewness was less than 2, and kurtosis under 4 Abad et al. Table 6. That was sufficient evidence for its convergent and discriminant validity since the contents, while correlated, belong to different constructs.
That is ample evidence of convergent and discriminant validity; we expected these contents, which refer to feelings during wilderness contact, would be inter-related and complementary even though they are measured as distinct constructs. Please bear in mind that in the Spanish adaptation of the Love and Care for Nature scale created for the purposes of this study, the item tapping awe and admiration toward nature did not yield acceptable values and was eliminated.
As a result, that measure concentrates on content like interconnectedness, wellbeing, and care for nature see Perkins, Coefficients of determination partial multiple regression were calculated, and a scatter plot created to test criterion validity Abad et al. Again, inspiring energy showed sufficient evidence of criterion validity with respect to environmental behaviors, explaining Considering these results, predicting environmental variables should be undertaken with caution. The ability of each factor of sublime emotion toward nature — awe and inspiring energy — to predict environmental behaviors yielded the following results multiple regressions.
However, when the effect of inspiring energy intervenes, awe no longer appears to predict environmental behaviors see Table 7. Table 7. The present research objectives were: to create a valid, reliable instrument with which to measure sublime emotion toward nature, one that captures the definition of the sublime as a mix of several emotions; and to differentiate sublime emotion toward nature from other variables — such as love and care for nature, environmental attitudes, and environmental behaviors.
This study produced a valid, reliable way to operationally define sublime emotion toward nature. Sublime emotion toward nature is a composite of feelings of awe and inspiring energy, which describe different affective experiences. Awe is defined as a mix of fear and respect toward nature, which is experienced as so much larger than oneself. Both are related to the two basic components of transcendent emotion, which according to Yaden et al.
Sublime emotion toward nature is also discernably different from awe alone, depending on the trigger stimulus and the resulting experience. The present research results show that a sense of awe is part of sublime emotion; but sublime emotion includes additional content. For example, item 18 Siento temor ante el misterio que encierra la naturaleza [I am fearful of the mystery that nature holds] , captures these contents.
This appears, too, in Keltner and Haidt definition, which other researchers in this field have followed. Inspiring energy, meanwhile, includes contents of happiness, unity, and belonging with nature, the universe, and other living beings; a sense of inspiration, freedom, vitality, eternity, ineffability, and harmony between the polar opposites of life and death. The awe factor we observed is consistent with the categories Ashley reported in his qualitative study. The inspiring energy factor, meanwhile, is empirically supported by earlier findings about the categories of spiritual inspiration in nature, connectedness, and a sense of belonging with nature Fredrickson and Anderson, ; Schroeder, ; Vining et al.
Meanwhile, factors which this study found to define sublime emotion toward nature would overlap in meaning with self-transcendent feelings in nature.
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Inspiring energy encompasses happiness and transcendent joy, which are also part of the definition of awe. By the same token, Robbins found that the sense of pure happiness — joy — relates to having experienced fear and respect before that sheer happiness. With that in mind, we recommend further examining the conceptual link between the two elements of sublime emotion, whether or not they effectively constitute two emotional elements with distinct psychological features and functions.
In light of the above, the present study lays out empirical evidence of a reciprocal relationship between ambivalent feelings with spiritual qualities, both triggered by wilderness encounters. Sublime emotion toward nature, thusly defined as a mix of awe and inspiring energy, is conceptually supported by Cousins et al.
Sublime emotion toward nature differs conceptually and operationally from other, similar variables, like feelings of love and care for nature, emotional affinity toward nature, and connectedness with nature. For instance, inspiring energy and Perkins notion of love and care for nature could have some shared content but they refer to different feelings during wilderness experiences. In all likelihood, the content of Perkins concept is more closely aligned with emotions triggered by inspiring energy, because they share contents of identification and connectedness with nature, and good feelings.
These two variables would logically, therefore, be highly correlated, suggesting potential collinearity between them, may be due to the similarity of contents in the identification, union with nature and sensation of positive elements. However, although they share certain emotional contents, the inspiring energy and the love and care for nature are not the same variable, since they respond to functions different from the experience of nature. The content of the love and care for nature operative measure is specific for the care and commitment of the environment, but not those of the inspiring energy, which do not make direct mention of the environmental care.
Love and care for nature also differs from awe. Feeling love and feeling awe, toward nature, are two different emotions people experience upon contact with it, or upon remembering a wilderness experience. Regarding the relationship between inspiring energy and awe, and environmentalism variables, we found that both of them positively and significantly predict environmental behaviors.
That is a novel finding within the literature; to date, there are no earlier results to which to compare. That being said, we must emphasize that the constituent factors of sublime emotion toward nature do not jointly explain environmental behaviors. Inspiring energy is probably more similar to core affect , proposed by Russel and Feldman , because it includes emotional activation, as in joy, vitality, happiness, freedom, harmony, and energy. Awe, on the other hand, may involve greater information processing, akin to a full-blown prototypical emotional episode as described by Russel and Feldman , since it includes vulnerability, humility, a feeling of veneration for the mysteries of nature — feelings that might lead to lasting personal change Shiota et al.
Therefore, we leave it to future research to test the hypothesis that inspiring energy more closely corresponds to emotional impulses triggered by wilderness experience, or memory thereof, whereas awe is a more complex emotion that, above and beyond core affect, involves a prototypical emotional episode.
Another interesting result was the positive and significant relationship between awe, environmental apathy and anthropocentrism.