It could be genetic. Horses are different, like people, and some are just more high strung than others. The cause of stress can be illness or it can be the environment the horse is in. There are so many factors that come into play. The good horseman is the one who can identify the stress and the cause. Not waiting on a horse or having a small problem and ignoring it until it gets too big.
It means carefully planning the races they go into, the shipping to races and, of course, their health. His prescription is simply to start with a horse that has raw talent and that is physically and mentally sound and then manage the care and training of that horse to avoid stress. Download the Digital Version. Subscription Services. Angela Antononi. Categories : Feature Articles.
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The Anxious Amateur. Changing Track. Hayes Is For Horses. From Pasture to Performance. Most Popular. I happen to know that old Riceman is trained along his suggested lines i. Swans' book - ok but too outdated now, given the leaps made in Ex Phys. New Posts. Members Profile. Post Reply. I was asked to reccomend a definitive book on racehorse training for a x-mass pressie but had no idea. So I turn to the forum Owners think they're trainers,trainers think they're jockeys and jockeys don't think.
I don't know that there is one really, is there? Is training an art or a science do you think? I think bios of trainers are the best places to pick up bits and pieces on training, personally. Bart's book, if they don't already have it.
Horse breeding is like religion, if you don't really believe in what you are doing it is purely social. The companion to this book is "Feeding to Win". Horse performance during the race is measured in various forms.
Many factors influencing race performance of Thoroughbred horses e. Morphometric measurements of horses are considered a criterion in determining breed characteristics and body conformation. In addition, they are important in monitoring development during the growth period and in determining the suitability for breed standards in the post-growth period.
Thoroughbred horses are required to conform to the breed characteristics in various body measurements. Many studies involving morphometric measurements in different horse breeds have been carried out Anderson and McIlwraith, ; Staniar et al.
Only one study Smith et al. Principal component analysis PCA is the simplest of the true eigenvector-based multivariate analyses. It is most commonly used to intensify the information included in a large number of variables, strongly correlated, into a smaller set of new composite dimensions, without much loss of information. It does so by composing new uncorrelated factors that successively maximize variance Sadek et al. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of morphometric measurements on race performance of Thoroughbred horses using multivariate analysis.
The animal material consisted of Thoroughbred horses of different ages that run in races in Hippodromes organized by the Jockey Club of Turkey. Pedigree stallion, birth date, age, gender, and mother age and racing running year, hippodrome, race distance, race duration, racetrack, and race type information of the horses was obtained from the records of the Board of High Stewards, Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock of Turkey, and the Jockey Club of Turkey.
All morphometric measurements Table 1 were taken from the right side with the horse standing in a normal position inside a fixed crush. Of the investigated animals, horses that had at least three paternal half-sibs and three official racing records were selected for the statistical analysis of race performance and effects of morphometric measurements on race performance.
Year: the years of horse racing; , , , , , , , , , and Race type: flat racing categories organized according to various characteristics. Maiden race: racing joined by horses that have never won.
Handicap race: racing in which different weights are loaded on the horses, and these weights are determined by scores of official handicappers to equalize their chances of winning; handicap 13 horses with a score between ; handicap 14 horses with a score between ; handicap 15 horses with a score between ; handicap 16 horses with a score between 30 and 85 ; and handicap 17 horses with a score between 40 and Condition race: racing where horses participated according to the total amount of lifetime earnings, and additional weights are loaded on horses according to the total amount of lifetime earnings.
The more the number of condition race increases, the more total amount of lifetime earnings are needed to participate.
Open class: racing with high-performance horses carrying the same weight. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated among morphometric measurements. The Kolmogorov-Simirnov normality test for normal distribution fitness, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test for sample size adequacy, and Bartlett's sphericity test were applied in the morphometric measurement data. Principal component analysis for morphometric measurements were performed, and then the factor loadings were rotated by the Varimax method.
The significance of the rotated factor loadings was determined using the value of 0.
Factor eigenvalues greater than 1 were accepted Alpar, ; Tabachnick and Fidell, For factor analysis, the basic factor analysis equation was used, as follows:. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis, using the model below, determined the importance of the effects of the obtained factors on race performance RP :. The t test was used for significance of the regression coefficients. The autocorrelation assumption was determined by the Durbin-Watson test. Least squares means Table 2 were Least squares means for race performance were The more the number of condition race increases, the more total amount of lifetime earnings are needed to participate; OC - open class.
Sample size adequacy by the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test was 0. The Durbin-Watson test for autocorrelation yielded a value of 1. Size and morphometry are extremely important traits in nearly all horse breeds including Thoroughbred, and numerous breed registries select horses on functional criteria and support the breeding of horses with body types most convenient for those particular functions. Using many body measurements from the head, neck, trunk, and limbs in a great number of horse breeds such as Thoroughbred, Shire, and Friesian in USA showed that there was a high body size variation among the horse breeds Brooks et al.
These findings agreed with the report by Brooks et al. In terms of morphometric measurements examined, males showed higher values than females. However, the effect of gender on morphometric measurements was generally not very clear, given that gender effects were only important for withers height, cannon circumference, and head width. There was usually a slight increase in morphometric measurements as the animals grew older, but none of these increases was statistically significant. This shows that Thoroughbred horses generally complete their growth and development at the age of two, agreeing with the statement that Thoroughbred horses are early-maturing.
In fact, Thoroughbred horses start their racing life one year earlier two years old than Arabian horses, the other breed used in flat racing in many countries. A research by Anderson and McIlwraith found that the various body measurements of Thoroughbred horses were similar at two and three years old, despite significant increase from one to two years old.
Similarity of body measurements between two- and three-year-old Thoroughbred horses Anderson and McIlwraith, was close to the findings of the present research. On the other hand, mother age did not significantly influence morphometric measurements, which suggests that the effect of mother age remained unchanged before the age of two years. The average withers height, one of the most important measurements, detected in this study Withers height of the two-year-old horses in this study The average withers height of the two-year-old foals in this study was very similar to the The general evaluation of the effects of various factors on race performance revealed that the effects of all factors were important, except for mother age.
Male horses had a better race performance than females 0. On the other hand, Oki et al. The effect of age on race performance was significant and was consistent with the findings of investigations on the same breed Ekiz et al.
The increase in race performance with age may be related to a gradual adaptation of horses to race conditions.