The problem remains unsolved. The notion of a sound beyond what has been heard is ever present.
Since neither single rhyming nor the close collocation of double rhymes brings this about, the problem stated is solved by the open collocation of double rhymes alone. But it also appears that verse of this type can have neither beginning nor end. The specimen shown supposes another The task remains to give it both beginning and end; that is to say, to create segments of terza rima which shall at once preserve its continua! Evidently the segment cannot begin at the entrance of any rhyme, as jl, or at the next line, as the supposed i, for this would leave without a rhyme.
In a segment so outlined each intermediate rhyme contributes three lines and the extreme rhymes together four. Such a numerical result suggests writing the segment as a s uccession of groups of three lines each, with a final line added. An auditory influence tends to strengthen the habit. The variation of the expectation of rhyme through which the ear passes in each triplet is the same as in every other. A visual innuence serves to fix the habit. Thus the hand, the ear, and the eye of the poet alike lead his mind to conceive of any segment of terza rima as a succession of groups of three lines to which a final line is added.
The music of the verse. There are two other characteristics of terza rima which also suit it to an otherworldly subject matter. The combination of alternate rhyming, which is a rhythm of twos, with double rhyming, which is a rhythm of threes, gives the same mingled impression of real order in apparent disorder which is obtained from music when one part moves in common time and the other in triple time.
Again, the harmonies of the verse do not change abruptly but gradually. The two new rhymes, third and fourth lm , are repeated by the fifth couplet, the sixth couplet dropping one, and the seventh the other, as before. Thus, up to the last rhymes of the segment, its musical material is continuously renewed, part by part, after one repetition. Such a material presents at every dissolution and renewal an image of death as the gateway to another life. Can it reasonably be conceived that considerations so delicate, intricate, and remote really influenced the metrical dress of the Commedia?
The question of its origin is to this day a fascinating riddle. Some critics have believed that Dante did not discover the terza rima but invented it. The terzetti, like the triple division of the poem, have been thought to represent the doctrine of the Trinity. It may be so. But why should the rhymes be interwoven as they are?
That he ever thought. Philologists are generally agreed that the breaking of open e and o has some causal relation to their lengthening under the stress accent in Imperial times, and that the Romance forms ie, uo are the result of dissimilation of broken ee, oo. The original recessive stress in Latin to the second century B. The later penultimate stress continued the process, causing other changes chiefly of two kinds: further weakening of non-tonic vowels, and the leveling of all tonic syllables so that every short tonic syllable became "long by nature": in other words, the short, free, tonic vowels were lengthened.
Convenient recent bibt. This has not always been done. Early attempts to explain what happened next were, naturally, based upon speculation. Many scholars, taking for granted the nature of the Vulgar Latin vowels, have proposed explanations of the process by which we arrive at the diphthongs. Passy, op. ZrPh, V, It is strange that Rousselot's penetrating observations have not received more consideration by historical grammarians who have studied this phenomenon, for he has certainly pointed the way to its final explanation.
Unfortunately his discussion is buried in what appears to be a sharply localized dialect study; besides, historical grammarians have not always felt complete confidence in the resuits of experimental phonetics cf. That the problem is a physiological one is assumed in ail these discussions. Of all the Indo-European diphthongs which it had inherited, the Latin of the first centuries of the Christian era preserved, even in tonic syllables, only aM; every possible shortening, syncope and apocope in non-tonic syllables had been, or was soon to be, effected by the stress accent.
When the tonic vowels in open syllables became long, the long open e, o must be treated as novelties to the Latin sound system, which is not true of long close e, o. One set of facts in the story has been overemphasized: the forms recorded in dialects. One can find, in some dialect or other, almost anything, even falling diphthongs, representing open e, o. Rarely can sporadic variants throw true light on the general tendencies in the main body of a language, unless they can be worked broadly into the average.
It is natural to see in the remoteness of Portuguese and Sardinian an impediment to the spread of new developments in the general stream of Vulgar Latin; while Portuguese and Rumanian exhibit an unusually strong tendency to assimilate the accented to the following unaccented vowels, resulting in inflectional doublets e. It Is trite and tedious to repeat that we have no earthly means of knowing how provincial Romans of fifteen centuries 19 P.
Passy expresses a workable view, op. XV, g, may be taken to support this view.
In the nature of things, no direct evidence as to the process of lengthening or the beginning of the diphthongization can be expected from contemporary documents. And we may assume that some tendencies nrmiy rooted in but distantly related modem languages, from one end of Europe to the other, must be age-old and universal. Such a tendency is an occasional relaxation in the articulation of long vowels. It is most exaggerated in English, where no long vowel is hit squarely, once for all, but is either reached for or drawled away gradually, a diphthong resulting in either case Sweet's "glides" ; but it is also found far developed in German and Romance.
In Middle English and Middle High German, for instance, the weakened shortened endings apparently gave added weight to the root, requiring a readjustment of the original energy of articulation, i.
This is physiological, and we may expect to find the same sort of thing anywhere under similar conditions: whenever difficulty arises, the vowel will be slurred a little, one way or another, depending on circumstances, to ease pronunciation. If ever there was a situation in a European language that would inevitably have set this general phonetic principle in action, that situation was produced by the development of the new long open e, o in Vulgar Latin. Heavy stress had been weakening shortening unstressed syllables and concentrating the original unit length of each word in one vowel in very long words, in two vowels , with a remnant only of the others.
But the lengthening of open e, o presented a new physiological problem.
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Now the length of the vowel, and its position in an open accented syllable, gave ample time to produce the proper sound, obviating the necessity present with short vowels, or with closed syllables, except in Spain of making a quick stab, hit-or-miss, that might result in almost any sort of phonetic change. But in connected speech there is, to be sure, no other speech , the organs are closed immediately before every vowel sound except in hiatus , either because a consonant is there, as with the o in novus, or because the vowel begins the phrase, as with the first vowel of Vulgar Latin OVO EST EN NIDO.
Themouthmust then make a quick transition from the closed position to the wide-open position of the open vowel, and the accommodation is not instantaneous. The theoretical result would be a series Tenney Frank's interesting suggestion that we investigate possible phonetic contributions from the swarms of orientais in the Empire during the first few centuries, Am. It does not turn out to be so. There is no glide for the most open of all vowels, a. Evidently, the motive for the development of the glide was absent in the case of?.
Thus the glide principle is not automatic, but requires considerable restriction. The organs of speech did not slide negligently from consonant position to vowel position; on the contrary, the vowel position was definitely, consciously aimed at, and, except in the case of open e, o, accurately attained.
Finally, Rousselot's "segmentation" does not occur in M, and does not satisfactorily dispose of the opposition between ie and ei, Mo and ou. The difficulties disappear when we take into account the novelty of the long open e, o. Pidal would have it , and quite devoid of stress: the stress would necessarily be on the vowel, not on the glide, at the beginning of the development.
Schuchardt's series is justified from this point on. We have at the same time disposed of the close vowels. Lindsay, Z.
Schuchardt, op. The type may be named the "maie Griselda," or, more simply, "Griseldus. He says,.
But since Loiseleur makes no detailed comparison of the two tales and mentions no further examples of the Griseldus type, he cannot be said to have exhausted the subject. Since however it is interrupted in the nineteenth day and not resumed until the twenty-sixth, its telling consumes only seven or eight days.
An outline of the tale follows, with a similar outline of Boccaccio's tale alongside:.
We visited beatiful villages and cities. Livre Attention! De profundis. You probably don't remember me. La chanson du faubourg.
In due time G. He finds Gr. He tells Gi. Before the marriage, G. The people declare themselves content, and confirm their promise. Loiseleur-Deslongchamps, Paris, , p. Before the marriage, S.